Sapphire is a deep blue stone that is a variety of corundum. It consists of aluminium oxide with traces of iron, magnesium, chromium and titanium. Sapphire is part of the hexagonal crystal system and scores a 9 on the Mohs hardness scale. It is a precious gemstone that is highly sought after. The meaning of Sapphire is joy and wisdom, it is also associated with truth and loyalty.
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People have probably used tourmaline as a gem for centuries, but until the development of modern mineralogy, they identified it as some other stone (ruby, sapphire, emerald, and so forth) based on its coloring.
Tourmaline comes in a variety of different colors. In fact, it has one of the widest color range of any gems species.
Birthstone for October and the gem for 8th anniversaries.